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Network Layer

Network Layer is Responsible for moving packets (data) from one end of the network to the other, called end to end communications. It requires logical addresses such as IP addresses. The Internet Protocol (IP) addresses make networks easier to both set up and connect with one another. The Internet uses IP addressing to provide connectivity […]

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Data Link Layer

Data link layer concerns about the media what we are using. It also cares about channels and their functions. This layer is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network (WAN) or between nodes on the same local area network (LAN) segment. The data link layer provides the […]

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Physical Layer

Physical layer dose two things: it sends bits and receives bits. The physical layer communicates with directly with the various types of actual communication media. Different kinds of media represent these bits values in different ways. Some use audio tones, while others employ state transmissions-changes in voltage from high and low to high. The physical […]